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Time-Space Maps


Klaus Spiekermann and Michael Wegener

Modern transport technologies reduce the time to overcome space; measured in units of time, space is 'shrinking'. Time-space maps represent this interaction between space and time cartographically. In time-space maps the distance between two points is not proportional to their physical distance (as in physical maps) but proportional to the travel time between them. This change of map scale leads to distortions of the map compared with 'familiar' physical maps. In an in-house research project a method for generating time-space maps that avoids the disadvantages of previous methods was developed. 


Base map (60 km/h)


Rail travel times 1993



Rail travel times 2020


Spiekermann, K., Wegener, M. (1993): Zeitkarten für die Raumplanung. Informationen zur Raumentwicklung 7.1993, 459-487.

Wegener, M., Kunzmann, K.R., Spiekermann, K. (1994): Wachsendes Europa - schrumpfender Kontinent. arch+ 122, 28-33.

Spiekermann, K., Wegener, M. (1994): The Shrinking Continent: New Time Space Maps of Europe. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 21, 653-673.

© 1994 Klaus Spiekermann, Michael Wegener, IRPUD